The Carbon Storage Program’s Wellbore Integrity and Mitigation Technology Component comprises efforts to improve wellbore construction materials to ensure safe and reliable injection operations and long-term containment of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the storage complex. In addition, the Wellbore Integrity and Mitigation Technology Component also addresses the need to prevent and correct any release of CO2 from its intended geologic storage complex.
Storage Complex Efficiency and Security provides improved tools to design effective injection operations, optimize injection rates, manage pressure, make efficient use of reservoir storage space, and ensure the sealing capability of caprocks, both onshore and offshore. Development of these tools relies upon an understanding of carbon dioxide (CO2) plume and brine pressure front movement and stabilization, along with knowledge of the geomechanical and geochemical impacts of CO2 injection on storage complex in diverse geologic settings. The movement of CO2 in the reservoir, and accompanying changes in pressure are affected by many factors, such as the magnitude and distribution of various hydrologic properties of the reservoir rock, reservoir size, structural features such as baffles and fractures, sedimentary variations, the in-situ stress state, and diverse geochemical reactions.
Monitoring, Verification, Accounting (MVA), and Assessment research is focused on three key technologies: subsurface monitoring, atmospheric and near-surface monitoring, and intelligent monitoring. The combination of atmospheric, near-surface, and subsurface monitoring technologies provides a multilevel approach to confirm permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). Intelligent Monitoring Systems (IMSs) that provide real-time, actionable information for operational control of storage projects will reduce the costs associated with carbon storage.
NETL Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships(RCSP) Initiative
To support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs).
The RCSP Initiative began in 2003 with characterization of each region’s potential to store carbon dioxide (CO2) in different geologic formations. Characterization activities in the Carbon Storage Program originally started as Phase I of the RCSP Initiative (the “Characterization Phase”) and included cataloging regional CO2 sources, characterizing CCS prospects, and prioritizing opportunities for future CO2 injection field projects. In 2005, validation of the most promising regional storage opportunities was initiated through a series of small-scale field laboratory projects (Validation Phase). The Validation Phase led to the successful completion of 19 small-scale field projects in a variety of storage complexes (8 in oil and gas fields, 5 in un-mineable coal seams, 5 in saline formations, 1 in basalt), providing information on reservoir and seal properties of regionally significant formations, testing, and initial validation of modeling and monitoring technologies. In 2008, the RCSP focus turned to large-scale field laboratories in saline formations and oil and gas fields with a target of injecting at least 1 million metric tons (MMT) per project in the Development Phase of the RCSP Initiative. Numerous applied research technologies have been integrated into these projects and the results have been essential in further technology development of CCS.
NETL Characterization and Field Projects
Characterization field laboratory projects focus on storage complex that can support the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies in both onshore and offshore settings. A key gap in the critical path toward CCS deployment is the identification and detailed characterization of geologic storage sites for the storage of 50+ million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources. The Carbon Storage Assurance Facility Enterprise (CarbonSAFE) Initiative has been deployed to focus on development of geologic storage sites for the storage of 50+ MMT of CO2 from industrial sources.
NETL Fit for Purpose Projects
Fit-for-Purpose projects are focused on developing specific subsurface engineering approaches that address research needs critical for widespread deployment. Data from Fit-for-Purpose field projects will validate National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) tools for reservoir modeling and assessing site-specific risks of leakage and induced seismicity at the 50+ million metric tons (MMT) scale. The research and development (R&D) performed in these projects will have crosscutting benefits to integrated subsurface science, including sharing technology testing data and information, project field sites to test technologies developed, best practices, and modeling and simulation capabilities as part of a network of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) field test sites for various applications (geothermal, nuclear waste isolation, shale gas, and unconventional oil).
NETL Carbon Capture Tools
Energy Data eXchange https://edx.netl.doe.gov/
National Risk Assessment Partnership https://edx.netl.doe.gov/dataset/co2-screen?__no_cache__=True